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Autism-Linked Genes Often Differ Between Siblings
Autism-Linked Genes Often Differ Between Siblings THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In families that have more than one child with autism, the gene variations underlying each child's disorder often differ, new research shows. Researchers have long known that autism is a complex disorder. Experts have suspected that the development of autism involves both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures that aren't yet fully understood. Now the new study suggests the genetic component is even...
Amphetamines Polluting Some Urban Streams: Study
Amphetamines Polluting Some Urban Streams: Study THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Medications and illegal drugs are polluting streams in and around at least one major U.S. city, new research reveals. Scientists say this pollution comes with ecological consequences -- areas in some streams have high enough concentrations of the stimulant amphetamine to alter the bottom of the aquatic food web. "Around the world, treated and untreated wastewater entering surface waters contains pharmaceuticals ...
Animal Research Yields Clues to Sexual Spread of Zika
Animal Research Yields Clues to Sexual Spread of Zika THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New research in mice may offer insight into how the Zika virus is transmitted sexually and affects a fetus. People typically get the virus through the bite of an infected mosquito, although Zika can also be spread through sex. Since the Zika outbreak began last year in Brazil, thousands of babies whose mothers were infected with Zika early in pregnancy have been born with a devastating birth defect known as...
Adult Lead (Blood)
Adult Lead (Blood) Does this test have other names? Lead poisoning test, BLL What is this test? This test measures the levels of lead in your blood. High levels of lead can be toxic. Complications include abdominal pain, constipation, a decline in thinking, and high blood pressure. Lead exposure can also cause reproductive problems. Women with high lead levels are more likely to have stillbirths or give birth to infants with lead poisoning. Men may have low sperm counts or abnormal sperm. You may be exp...
Aspartate Transaminase Does this test have other names? AST, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase test, SGOT What is this test? This blood test is used to diagnose liver damage. Aspartate transaminase (AST) is an enzyme that is released when your liver or muscles are damaged. Although AST is found mainly in your liver and heart, AST can also be found in small amounts in other muscles. This test can also be used to monitor liver disease. Why do I need this test? Your healthcare provider might give you...
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Does this test have other names? ABG, systemic arterial blood gas analysis, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, or oxygen saturation test. What is this test? An arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) measures the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood to see how well your lungs are working. It also measures the acid-base balance in the blood. Your kidneys and lungs keep this acid-base balance. You need this for the enzyme systems in your body to work at their best. When there is an imbalanc...
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Clotting Time
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Clotting Time Does this test have other names? Intrinsic pathway coagulation factor profile, aPTT, partial thromboplastin time, PTT, blood coagulation tests What is this test? The aPTT is one of several blood coagulation tests. It measures how long it takes your blood to form a clot. Normally, when one of your blood vessels is damaged, proteins in your blood called clotting factors come together in a certain order to form blood clots and quickly stop bleeding. The aPTT t...
Apolipoprotein B-100 Does this test have other names? ApoB100, Apolipoprotein B, ApoB, Apolipoprotein (B) What is this test? This test measures the amount of a certain type of cholesterol called apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) in your blood. ApoB is the main protein found in the low-density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL cholesterol is also called "bad" cholesterol because high levels of it can damage your heart and arteries. The ApoB test helps your healthcare provider figure out your risk for cardiovascular dise...
Apolipoprotein A Does this test have other names? Apo A-1, apolipoprotein a-1 What is this test? This test measures the amount of apolipoprotein A in your blood. It helps your healthcare provider figure out your risk for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. It helps start the process for HDL to remove bad types of cholesterol from your body. In this way, apolipoprotein A can help to lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. Although apolipoprotein ...
Antitissue Transglutaminase Antibody
Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody Does this test have other names? IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase, IgA Anti-tTG, celiac disease testing What is this test? This test is used to see if you have celiac disease. It is also used to see how well people with the condition are doing. It is one of several blood tests that may be used to help diagnose celiac disease. Tissue transglutaminase is an enzyme that fixes damage in your body. People with celiac disease often make antibodies that attack this enzyme....
Antithrombin (Activity and Antigen)
Antithrombin (Activity and Antigen) Does this test have other names? Functional antithrombin III, functional AT, AT activity What are these tests? The antithrombin activity and antigen tests are used to help find out what may be causing abnormal blood clots in your body. A blood clot (thrombus) can be good or bad, depending on the case. Your body needs to be able to form blood clots in order to stop too much bleeding in case of injury. But it's important to prevent abnormal clots that cut off blood flow...
Antiphospholipid Antibody Does this test have other names? APA, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies What is this test? This blood test checks for antiphospholipid antibodies. These may be found in people with abnormal blood clots or autoimmune diseases. Your immune system usually creates antibodies in response to an infection or foreign invaders like bacteria. Antiphospholipid antibodies are usually made when your immune system mistakes part of your own body for a harmful substance. In this ...
Antinuclear Antibody Does this test have other names? ANA, fluorescent antinuclear antibody test, FANA What is this test? This blood test is done to help your health care provider find out if you have an autoimmune disease. Your immune system is your body's defense system. It protects you against foreign invaders like viruses and bacteria. In some cases, your immune system can become confused. It can think that normal cells in your body are foreign invaders. When that happens, your body can make protein...
Antimyocardial Antibody Does this test have other names? AMA, anti-cardiac muscle antibody What is this test? This test measures how many antimyocardial antibodies (AMAs) are in your blood. AMAs are a sign of heart damage. Higher levels are linked to several forms of heart disease. They can be found in the blood before you have any symptoms of heart disease. Why do I need this test? Some people develop AMAs after heart surgery or a heart attack. Having these antibodies can be a sign of pericarditis, or ...
Antimitochondrial Antibody and Antimitochondrial M2 Antibody
Antimitochondrial Antibody and Antimitochondrial M2 Antibody Does this test have other names? AMA, mitochondrial antibody, antimitochondrial M2 antibody What is this test? This test looks for substances called antimitochondrial antibody and antimitochondrial M2 antibody in your blood. These substances are usually made by your body if you have a condition called primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is the most common autoimmune disease that affects the liver. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system att...
Antidiuretic Hormone Does this test have other names? Vasopressin, arginine vasopressin, ADH What is this test? This test measures how much antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is in your blood. ADH is made by your hypothalamus. ADH keeps the amount of water in your body in balance. Certain conditions can affect the amount of ADH that your body makes. These include hyponatremia, or low sodium levels in your bodily fluids. They also include diabetes insipidus. Symptoms of this condition include urinating often and...
Anion Gap (Blood)
Anion Gap (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum anion gap What is this test? This test looks at electrically charged particles in your blood. This helps your health care provider diagnose acid-base problems. The test results are done from the results of an electrolyte panel, another blood test. Your blood contains sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate. All of these are charged particles. The value for the anion gap tells your health care provider something about which other charged particles must b...
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Blood)
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum angiotensin converting enzyme, SACE What is this test? This test measures how much angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is in your blood. Your ACE levels may be higher if you have a condition called sarcoidosis. In sarcoidosis, small abnormal knots of immune cells called granulomas form in various parts of the body. The most common place is in the lungs. These knots of cells may cause health problems. Granulomas can also form in...
Anaerobic Culture Does this test have other names? Wound culture What is this test? This test looks for certain bacteria in a wound or an infection in a fluid sample. These bacteria are called anaerobic because they don't need oxygen to grow. Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria can occur almost anywhere in your body. These may be oral infections, lung infections, diabetes-related foot infections, infected bites, and gangrene. Finding the specific bacteria that's causing your infection helps your hea...
Amylase (Urine) Does this test have other names? Amylase What is this test? This test measures how much of the enzyme amylase is in your urine. About 40% of the amylase in your body is made by your pancreas. The rest comes from your salivary glands. This test is used to find out whether your pancreas or your salivary glands are swollen. Your amylase levels are usually higher than normal if you have a problem with your pancreas. High levels can also be caused by an infection, cancer, or even alcohol or m...
Amylase (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum amylase What is this test? This test measures the level of the enzyme amylase in your blood. About 40% of the amylase in your body is made by your pancreas. The rest comes from your salivary glands. This test is used to find out whether your pancreas or your salivary glands are swollen. If you have a pancreatic disorder, your amylase levels are usually higher than normal. High levels can also be caused by an infection, cancer, or even alcohol or med...
Amphetamine Screen (Urine)
Amphetamine Screen (Urine) Does this test have other names? Drug test, AMP, toxicology urine screen What is this test? This test looks for amphetamine in your urine. Amphetamine is a drug that stimulates your central nervous system. It can show up in your urine long after you've taken it. Amphetamines include methamphetamine (meth) and phentermine. Amphetamine is a commonly used street drug. It makes users feel very alert and have lots of energy. Stimulants like amphetamine and methamphetamine can also ...
Amphetamine Screen (Blood)
Amphetamine Screen (Blood) Does this test have other names? Amphetamine concentrations screen (blood), amphetamine screen (blood) What is this test? This test measures the amount of a drug called amphetamine in your blood. This drug is a central nervous system stimulant. This group of drugs also includes methamphetamine, or "meth." The test is most commonly used to screen for drug abuse. It's often required by the court system and some workplaces. If you show symptoms of an amphetamine overdose, such as...
Ammonia Does this test have other names? Blood ammonia test, NH3 What is this test? This test checks the level of ammonia in your blood. The test helps find out why you may have changes in consciousness and also helps diagnose a liver disease called hepatic encephalopathy. This disease affects how your brain works, because of excess toxins, or poisons, in your body. Your liver may not work properly if you have high levels of ammonia in your blood. Ammonia is a chemical made by bacteria in your intestine...
ALT Does this test have other names? Alanine aminotransferase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, SGPT What is this test? This test measures the amount of the enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in your blood. ALT, formerly called SGPT, is mostly found in your liver cells. When liver cells are injured, they release this enzyme into your blood. High levels are a sign of liver damage. This test is part of a group of tests commonly referred to as "liver function tests." Results of these tests give heal...
Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Marker (Blood)
Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Marker (Blood) Does this test have other names? AFP What is this test? This is a blood test to look for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in your blood. AFP is normally made by a fetus's liver and yolk sac. It's the main protein during the first three months of development. AFP greatly decreases by age 1 and should only be found in adults in very low levels. AFP is one of several tumor markers. Tumor markers are molecules in the blood that are higher when a person has certain cancers. AFP ...
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Blood) Does this test have other names? msAFP screen What is this test? If you are pregnant, this test looks for a fetal substance called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in your blood. AFP is a protein made by your fetus' liver. The protein passes through the placenta and into your blood. The test helps find out whether your fetus has higher than normal levels of AFP. Higher levels of AFP may mean that your fetus has an abnormality, such as a neural tube defect or Down syndrome. Neural tube d...
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid)
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein, AFAFP test What is this test? This test checks a sample of amniotic fluid. The sample can confirm that your fetus has a birth defect called an open neural tube defect. Spina bifida is an example of a neural tube defect. Amniotic fluid is the liquid that protects and feeds your fetus during pregnancy. When a developing baby has open neural tube defect, it often causes a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (A...
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Does this test have other names? Alpha-1-antiprotease deficiency, alpha-1-antiproteinase inhibitor deficiency, AAT deficiency, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A-1AT) deficiency What is this test? This is a blood test to help find out if liver disorders and lung diseases such as emphysema are caused by a genetic disorder called alpha-1antitrypsin deficiency. This is especially true if they show up much earlier than they normally would. This disorder is linked to abnormally low levels or a lack o...
Alkaline Phosphatase Does this test have other names? ALP What is this test? The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures how much alkaline phosphatase you have in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found throughout your body. But it is mainly in your liver, bone, kidney, and digestive tract. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if you're at risk for a condition that affects your liver. For instance, your blood can show higher levels of ALP if one of the bile ducts that drains your...
Aldosterone and Renin
Aldosterone and Renin Does this test have other names? Aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone What is this test? This test measures levels of the hormones aldosterone and renin in your blood. Aldosterone and renin play important roles in the body. Aldosterone regulates your levels of potassium, sodium, and overall blood volume. High levels of aldosterone can result from a condition called primary aldosteronism (PA), which causes high blood pressure. PA can then le...
Albumin (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine albumin, 24-hour urine test for albumin What is this test? This test looks for a protein called albumin in your urine. The test is used to check for kidney damage or disease. Albumin helps to keep the right amount of fluid moving through your body. Your kidneys filter toxins from your blood, but they allow proteins to pass through because proteins are useful to your body. Proteins should be reabsorbed in your blood and not be passed out in your urin...
Albumin (Blood) Does this test have other names? ALB What is this test? This test measures the amount of the protein albumin in your blood. Your liver makes albumin. Albumin carries substances such as hormones, drugs, and enzymes throughout your body. This test can help diagnose, evaluate, and watch kidney and liver conditions. When your kidneys begin to fail, albumin starts to leak into your urine. This causes a low albumin level in your blood. Why do I need this test? You may have this test if your he...
ACTH (Blood) Does this test have other names? Adrenocorticotropic hormone blood test, corticotropin What is this test? This is a blood test that measures the amount of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) the pituitary gland produces. This gland is a tiny organ that sits just below your brain. It secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone, which controls the production of another hormone called cortisol. Cortisol is produced by your adrenal glands, which are located at the top of your kidneys. Cortisol helps br...
Activated Coagulation Time
Activated Coagulation Time Does this test have other names? ACT, activated clotting time What is this test? This test measures how long it takes your blood to clot. It's often used to check how well the drug heparin is working. Heparin slows the ability of blood to clot, and the ACT test helps your health care provider determine the right dosage. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if you are getting heparin to prevent your blood from clotting during a procedure such as open heart surgery, c...
Acid-Fast Bacteria Smear
Acid-Fast Bacteria Smear Does this test have other names? AFB smear microscopy, AFB smear, mycobacterial smear What is this test? This test looks for a type of bacteria called acid-fast bacillus in your sputum. Tuberculosis is the most common infection from this type of bacteria. Your sputum sample is collected from mucus coughed up from your lungs. The sample is "smeared" on a glass slide and treated with a special acid-fast stain to look at under a microscope. Why do I need this test? You may need thi...
Acid-Fast Bacteria Culture
Acid-Fast Bacteria Culture Does this test have other names? Acid-fast bacillus smear and culture, AFB smear and culture, TB culture and sensitivity, mycobacterial culture What is this test? An acid-fast bacteria (AFB) culture is done to find out if you have tuberculosis (TB) or another mycobacterial infection. Besides tuberculosis, the other main mycobacterial infections are leprosy and a TB-like disease that affects people with HIV/AIDS. To do an AFB culture, health care providers take a sample of phle...
Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody (Blood)
Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Binding Antibody, AChR Antibody, Myasthenia Gravis Antibodies What is this test? This test measures the concentration of a substance called acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody in your blood. AChR antibodies stop the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from doing its job. Acetylcholine carries nerve signals that tell your muscle cells to contract. AChR antibodies are made if you have the ...
Acetaminophen Drug Level
Acetaminophen Drug Level Does this test have other names? Paracetamol or Tylenol drug level What is this test? The acetaminophen drug level is a blood test used to screen for the presence of the common pain reliever acetaminophen. (Tylenol and paracetamol are among several other names for the same medicine.) This over-the-counter (OTC) medicine is used to treat pain and reduce fever. It is safe and works well in the recommended doses. But dosing mistakes are common. Acetaminophen is also often used in i...
A1C Does this test have other names? Hemoglobin A1c; HbA1c; glycosylated hemoglobin; glycohemoglobin; Glycated hemoglobin What is this test? A1C is a blood test used to screen people to find out whether they have diabetes or prediabetes. It's also used in people who know they have diabetes to measure how well they are controlling their blood sugar and to guide their treatment decisions over time. Why do I need this test? You may need this test to check for prediabetes or diabetes. If you already know th...
Anger Management: Strategies for Parents and Grandparents
Anger Management: Strategies for Parents and Grandparents Parenting and grandparenting can be an emotional roller coaster. Although you're filled with love for your kids and grandkids, caring for them can also be scary, frustrating, and sometimes downright infuriating. But no matter how riled up you get, it's important to control your anger around youngsters. The importance of managing anger It never feels good to rage at someone you love, especially a child. And although anger is a completely natural a...
AIDS-Related Lymphoma in Children
AIDS-Related Lymphoma in Children What is AIDS-related lymphoma? AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer called non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It grows in some people with AIDS. AIDS is a disease that weakens the immune system. AIDS raises the risk for long-term (chronic) disease, such as cancer. AIDS-related lymphoma grows in the white blood cells of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancin...
Acquired Hypothyroidism in Children
Acquired Hypothyroidism in Children What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland doesn't make enough thyroid hormone. The condition is more common in adults. But it’s the most common thyroid disorder in children. Not enough thyroid hormone leads to signs such as slow growth, lack of activity, and poor performance in school. In children it’s often referred to as acquired hypothyroidism. What causes hypothyroidism? The most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism is an autoimmune react...
Achalasia in Children
Achalasia in Children What is achalasia in children? Achalasia is a rare disease that makes it hard to swallow foods and liquids. In achalasia, there is a problem with the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus). The muscles that make the esophagus contract and push food down to the stomach don’t work well. The muscle contractions get weak. The LES (lower esophageal sphincter) also doesn’t work well. The LES is the muscle at the bottom of the esophagus, where it joins the stomac...
About Poison Control Centers
About Poison Control Centers Have you ever wondered what to do if your child accidentally swallows medication or if bleach gets splashed in your eyes while cleaning your home? Immediate, lifesaving guidance is just a phone call away at poison control centers. There are facilities dedicated to helping people faced with a poisoning emergency. Children and even adults can easily swallow or inhale potentially poisonous substances or be exposed through the skin or eyes, and immediate action is needed to limi...
Astrocytoma An astrocytoma is a type of brain tumor that develops in astrocytes. These are the star-shaped cells in the brain that hold nerve cells in place. An astrocytoma can be harmless (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Astrocytomas are most common in middle-aged men, but they can occur in children, too. Astrocytomas in children Click to Enlarge In young people, astrocytomas are usually found at the base of the brain, and they are usually low grade, which means they are slow growing. When diagnosed,...
Amniocentesis Podcast Detailed information on amniocentesis, including the reasons and preparation for the procedure, how the procedure is performed, and after care. Play Audio
Anatomy of the Skull Base
Anatomy of the Skull Base Your ability to run, jump, write with a pen, laugh, and experience pain all start in the brain, a mass of soft tissues and nerve cells attached to the spinal cord that sends messages throughout the body to let you move and feel. The brain is divided into several parts, all protected by the skull. Click to Enlarge At the base of the skull is bone that supports 4 brain components—the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, and cerebellum. The skull base offers support from the b...
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system. This helps control the sense of feeling, movement, and functioning of the body's internal organs. Made up of bundles of nerves, the spinal cord carries signals from your body to your brain, and vice versa. The spinal cord is tube-shaped and extends from the brain all the way down to the lumbar, or lower, region of the spine. Branching off from the spinal cord are small nerves, called nerve roots. These roots emerge from sm...
Ascites What is ascites? Ascites is a condition in which fluid collects in spaces within your abdomen. If severe, ascites may be painful. The problem may keep you from moving around comfortably. Ascites can set the stage for an infection in your abdomen. Fluid may also move into your chest and surround your lungs. This makes it hard to breathe. What causes ascites? The most common cause of ascites is cirrhosis of the liver. Drinking too much alcohol is one of the most common causes of cirrhosis of the l...
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) happen when a group of blood vessels in your body forms incorrectly. In these malformations, arteries and veins are unusually tangled. This usually happens during development before birth or shortly after. Most people with AVMs have no initial symptoms or problems. Instead, the AVMs are often discovered when healthcare providers treat another unrelated health concern. Sometimes the rupture of one of the blood vessels in an AVM will bring the...
Ampullary Cancer Ampullary cancer, or ampullary carcinoma, is a cancer that forms in a body part called the ampulla of Vater. The ampulla of Vater is a small opening that enters into the first portion of the small intestine, known as the duodenum. The ampulla of Vater is the spot where the pancreatic and bile ducts release their secretions into the intestines. Facts about ampullary cancer Ampullary cancer is a fairly rare form of cancer. In fact, fewer than 1% of cancers related to the gastrointestinal ...
Automated External Defibrillator
Automated External Defibrillator When someone’s heart stops working, it is known as sudden cardiac arrest. Sudden cardiac arrest happens to many thousands of people each year. It causes blood to stop flowing to the brain and other organs. Sudden cardiac arrest can cause a person to die within minutes. In some cases, an automated external defibrillator (AED) may save a person’s life. What is an automated external defibrillator? Example of an automated external defibrillator An AED is a small, portable, b...
Atrial Flutter What is atrial flutter? Atrial flutter is one of the more common abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and involves the upper heart chambers (atria). It is caused by an abnormal electrical circuit that makes the atria beat quickly and flutter instead of fully squeezing. It can result in fast heart rates and a decrease in heart efficiency. This causes symptoms and increases the risk for stroke. What causes atrial flutter? Normal electrical heart impulses are generated by the sinus node (SA ...
Achilles Tendon Injuries
Achilles Tendon Injuries What are Achilles tendon injuries? The Achilles tendon is a fibrous band of tissue that links the muscles in your calf to your heel. The strength and flexibility of this tendon are important for jumping, running, and walking. Your Achilles tendon withstands a lot of stress and pressure during everyday activities, as well as during athletic and recreational play. If it becomes inflamed, swollen, and irritated, it is called tendonitis. What causes Achilles tendon injuries? Tendoni...
Acute Liver Failure
Acute Liver Failure What is acute liver failure? Acute liver failure is a rare condition. It happens when your liver suddenly begins to lose its ability to function. This often happens right after an overdose of medicine or poisoning. Chronic liver failure happens over a long stretch of time. What causes acute liver failure? Acute liver failure can be caused by hepatitis. It can also be caused by taking medicines such as acetaminophen. Autoimmune disease and Wilson’s disease can also cause acute liver f...
Anal Fissures Anal fissures are tears, or cracks, in your anus. Fissures are sometimes confused with hemorrhoids. These are inflamed blood vessels in, or just outside, the anus. Both fissures and hemorrhoids often result from passing hard stool. Causes Fissures result from the stretching of your anal mucosa beyond its normal capacity. This often happens when stools are hard due to constipation. Once the tear happens, it leads to repeated injury. The exposed internal sphincter muscle beneath the tear goe...
Anorectal Abscess Many glands are found within the body’s anus. If one of these glands becomes clogged, it can get infected, and an abscess can develop. An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus under the skin in the area of the anus and rectum. Symptoms These are possible signs of an anorectal abscess: Pain or discomfort near the anus or buttocks Fatigue Fever Night sweats Constipation or painful bowel movements Swelling or redness near the anus Lump or painful hardened tissue near the anus Pain in t...
Anal Fistula An anal fistula is an abnormal tunnel under the skin that connects the anal canal in the colon to the skin of the buttocks. Most anal fistulas form in reaction to an anal gland that has developed an abscess, or a pus-filled infection. Symptoms The symptoms of an anal abscess and an anal fistula can be similar and may include: Pain and swelling around the anal area Fever and chills Feeling tired and sick Redness, soreness, or itching of the skin around the anal opening Drainage of pus near t...
Achalasia Achalasia is a disorder that affects your esophagus. This is the swallowing tube that connects the back of your throat to your stomach. If you have achalasia, your esophagus does not sufficiently push food or liquid into your stomach. In addition, the ring of muscle that circles the lower portion of your esophagus does not relax enough to let food and liquid pass through easily. In fact, achalasia means "failure to relax." Achalasia usually develops slowly, making it harder for you to swallow ...
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Copyright 2016. All rights reserved.